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Solar PV technology converts energy from solar radiation directly into electricity. Solar PV cells are the electricity-generating component of a solar energy system. PV cells are assembled into a PV panel or module. PV modules are then connected to create an array. The modules are connected in series and then in parallel, as needed, to reach the specific voltage and current requirements for the array. The direct current (DC) electricity generated by the array is then converted by an inverter to usable alternating current (AC) that can be consumed by adjoining buildings and facilities or exported to the electricity grid.

A typical PV system is made up of several key components, including:
PV modules:
Module technologies are differentiated by the type of PV material used, resulting in a range of conversion efficiencies from light energy to electrical energy. Two common PV technologies that have been widely used for commercial- and utility-scale projects are crystalline silicon and thin film.
Inverters convert DC electricity from the PV array into AC and can connect seamlessly to the electricity grid. Inverters also sense the utility power frequency and synchronize the PV-produced power to that frequency.
Balance-of-system components:
Mounting racks and hardware for the panels. Typical mounting systems can be categorized as fixed tilt or tracking. The selection of mounting type is dependent on many factors, including installation size, electricity rates, government incentives, land constraints, latitude, and local weather.
Wiring for electrical connections:
Electrical connections, including wiring, disconnect switches, fuses, and breakers are required to meet electrical code for both safety and equipment protection.

In order to maximise the generation from your Solar PV plant, the following should be kept in mind:
Location (Solar Irradiation/ weather conditions)
Plant layout
Shading and roof orientation
System design
Equipment quality
Operations and maintenance

The annual maintenance and recurring costs are almost negligible, since there are no moving parts and the input fuel (sunlight) is free. For optimum performance, the system only requires cleaning of modules and basic preventive and corrective maintenance. However, for off-grid systems where batteries are used, the maintenance costs are higher on account of battery replacement every 3-5 years. To ensure high generation and low maintenance cost, regular monitoring through data loggers is highly recommended. Generally the maintenance cost is only 0.1% of the initial investment.

Solar PV is a highly proven and reliable technology and have been in use since 1950s. A PV system that is designed, installed, and maintained well will operate for 25 years or even more than 25 years. The Inverters, which are an integral part of a Solar PV system, may need a replacement once in the 25 years lifetime of the system.

Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar energy system owners for the electricity they add to the grid. For example, if an industrial customer has a PV system on the shed for their factory, it may generate more electricity than the factory uses during daylight hours. If the factory is net-metered, the electricity meter will run backwards to provide a credit against what electricity is consumed at night or other periods when the works electricity use exceeds the system’s output. Customers are only billed for their “net” energy use.

Your solar panels generate renewable, solar energy during the day. This supplies electricity to your home. With energy prices on the rise, it makes sense to use as much of the free electricity your solar panels are generating as possible, instead of sending it back to the grid. Solar battery storage makes this possible. The excess energy your home is not currently using goes into charging your battery, so instead of sending the excess electricity back to the grid, you can store it and power your home from the sun after it goes down.

1 kWp solar system requires approximately 10 sq. m (or 100 sq. ft) of shadow free area.

Yes, wind load needs to be considered. The wind load will depend upon the exact location of the site. The installer should consider IS standards for the specific location. But solar power plants can be designed for any wind load.

On an average, every 1 KW setup produces 1300 to 1500 units in a year. This may, however, vary based upon the location of the plant, seasonal factors, surroundings and shadow-free area available. You can consider 1400 units as an average for the sake of calculation.

The electricity generation of the plant suffers during rainy and cloudy days due to lesser availability of sunlight as compared to clear sunny days.

The Solar plant will generate electricity only during the Sunny hours, typically between 6 A.M. to 6 P.M and will not generate any electricity during the night.

1 kWp solar system requires approximately 10 sq. m (or 100 sq. ft) of shadow free area.